Sniper/rifle that we mention of the title above is airgun. It work almost like firearms. The principle is the same, using air pressure to push a projectile. Just that firearms do it better, more compact, higher pressure etc. I can narrow basic airguns to 4 main things. There can be more, like extra reservior to enable more than 1 shot, but whats important for those trying for the first time is the basics.
1) Air reservoir: This stores the energy needed to push the bullet. First, you pump air into the reservoir then shoot with it. Obviously, it needs to be made of a material that can seal the high pressure used.
Some common things used are: PET bottles(max ~100psi), PVC pipings(max ~300psi), Metal pipings(even higher pressure). In easier words, its just an air tank. There are people using regular compressed air(always available), carbon dioxide, or combustion pneumatics(igniting flammable gas).
2) Trigger: The trigger also seals the pressure, but unlike the air reservoir, it can release the pressure whenever needed. A good trigger will let go of the air in an explosive manner, rather than opening slowly, Thus, the normal sink tap wouldnt work well.
Common things used: ball valves(simple, easy to use), modified sprinkler valves(quite efficient), balanced spool valve(powerful).
3) Barrel: the barrel comes after the trigger, it directs the energy from reservoir to the projectile. Without a barrel, the energy will go to all directions and very little is transferred to the projctile. One common misconception is that barrel length increase power. It is more accurate to say that a longer barrel maximises the efficiency. Because when shooting, it is usual for the ammo to be shot out before the pressure is depleted. The leftover pressure just gets expelled. A long barrel will reduce the wasted pressure.
4) Bullet/Ammo: Obviously, its the stuff that hits the target. One main concern is mass. Too heavy, and it wont travel fast, too light, it will travel fast, but have low inertia and slows down fast. Saying which is best, weight or speed is like comparing .22, 9mm or .45 ammunitions. There are just pros and cons. As Gallo said a few times before. There is no perfect weapon(x3). A good projectile seals well in the barrel, letting no air escape except by pushing on it, but it needs to have low friction. Also to take account is penetration(usage of pointy things).
Common bullets: nail darts(penetrates very good), ball bearings(marbles or metal, heavy, carries high momentum), batteries/slugs(batteries shatter, very high momentum), screws(harder than nails and sticks to flesh), also just almost anything that will slide through the barrel.
A few words for those interested in the science (basic thermophysics involved). I may be wrong, but these are what I thought.
U = Ekinetic + Epotential …but… Uair = Ekinetic
ΔU = Q + ΔW
Doubling the chamber volume (V) or doubling the pressure (P)? In isothermal expansion, ΔW = -Q. Energy is same if both systems are at same temperature. The energy isnt really from the P, but from the internal energy of the gas (thermal). Our air is mostly Nitrogen and Oxygen (weak Van der Waals). Thus, they are very ideal gasses having ~zero potential energy, the only internal energy is kinetic. Energy is determined by number of gas particles and temperature. Either doubling P or V will result in the same amount of particles. Energy is the same, but high P & low V will deliver the energy faster than Low P & high V. A long barrel is needed to fully use the energy. You would want a compact gun. Thus, increasing pressure is better.
Isn’t it still illegal? Laws differs with country. As for my area, yeah its illegal but real guns cant be found easily, I keep my stuff secret and train shooting in secrecy. Its merely for emergency situations to protect my family and friends. Just to remind, its yellow status now right?
p/s: I am not advocating law breaking so please keep trying to be a law abiding citizen if possible.
(Just ask, the community can help. Then I will highlight them here so people need not scour the comments for resolved question)
P/S: Actually I think its funny to think about surviving with homemade airguns. But seriously its no joke. Imagine having to rely on melee weapons only. Bows need a license. Yeah, thats a nice option too, I guess one day Id try and get one lol. I once tried archery a bit while I was at school. Also, please do share any plans/sketches/ideas so the members can evaluate them, maybe discuss a better solution. It also allows sharing of new ideas 🙂
I am not going to be responsible for any damage caused by the info in this post. Survival is important, thats why Im putting this up. Treat an airgun like any real gun. Dont point it recklessly, when in doubt point to ground. Know whats the target and whats behind the target. Treat them the same whether loaded or not loaded. I wouldnt say Im a professional on this, Im just a newb in homemade airgun making but I think a topic for alternative ranged weapons should exist for members in gun free regions, so if any info here is flawed, do correct me.
Check out these videos tutorial below to get an easy understanding on how to make home made airgun such as sniper or rifle with complete materials:
Version 2 Part 1:
Version 2 Part 2:
Hope you will enjoy on these tutorial.
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